How to add Debian software repository

Software repository does not add when we install Debian Linux from CD/DVD without Internet connection. You can't update the Debian Linux without software repository. But you can add software repository later. Find a repository near your area. Download from remote server take long time to download updates.

You can find Debian software repository near your area by visiting Debian Source List Generator

In my experience, repositories from India is slow and so I make use Debian repositories from Japan. 

Add repository address to Debian

Open Applications > Accessories > Terminal 
Open sources file and add repository address.

leafpad /etc/apt/sources.list

Copy paste the lines to the file. Here is the repository from Japan,

deb wheezy main
deb-src wheezy main

deb wheezy/updates main
deb-src wheezy/updates main

# wheezy-updates, previously known as 'volatile'
deb wheezy-updates main
deb-src wheezy-updates main

Save and close the file. Update the sources list.

apt-get update

Install Indian fonts

India is a country rich with regional languages. You can install regional language fonts in Ubuntu. Apply following command in a terminal,

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install fonts-indic

This font package include Malayalam, Hindi, Tamil, Kannada etc.

Install Malayalam Fonts alone
Apply following command to install only Malayalam Fonts.

sudo apt-get install fonts-mlym

Beautiful Malayalam fonts available at Swathantra Malayalam Computing website.

Image courtesy: IIT Madras

How to uninstall Ubuntu One

Ubuntu One is a cloud storage service operated by Canonical Ltd. Canonical announced that they are going to shut down the service. Ubuntu One service is integrated with Ubuntu Operating system. You can remove Ubuntu One packages by apply following commands in a terminal.

sudo apt-get autoremove ubuntuone-client python-ubuntuone-control-panel

Clean system cache 
sudo apt-get autoremove
sudo apt-get autoclean

Remove Micromax MAD application

MAD application available with Micromax is a disturbance while dialing numbers. In normal case, Micromax does not allow to uninstall MAD application. You can uninstall MAD application after rooting your phone using King Root.

First of all install King Root application.

Open King User application and goto KingTool > Uninstall Tool 
Find MAD app from the list and uninstall.

How to root Android Jelly Bean and Kit Kat using King Root

King Root is an ideal tool to root your Android phone. Download King Root .apk file from this link and install.

Run King Root application.

Click on Root button. It take sometime for the rooting process.

A blue bar appear after finishing the process. Click on blue button.
Restart phone. 

Caution:  This application may not work with all phone brands. You can try various tools like Framaroot and KingoRoot. If these tools does not work with your phone model, search in google to get a solution. Most of the phones have already rooted and you can find detailed documentation with the help of google.

Linux DVD's for distribution

Ubuntu 14.04

Following Linux DVD's are available for distribution. Distribution charge is Rs. 150. It includes expenses of stationery items and postal charge.
Distribution Version and architecture Distribution charge
Ubuntu 12.04 & 14.04 (32&64 bit) Rs. 150
Linux Mint Quiana (MATE & Cinnamon) (32&64 bit) Rs. 150
Debian Wheezy (32&64 bit) Rs. 150
Xubuntu 12.04 & 14.04 (32&64 bit) Rs. 150

Service Area: Inside India Only.
Mode of Delivery: Speed Post (India Post)
Mode of payment Deposit Rs. 150 in the following bank account.
Account Owner: Vimal Kumar V.
Bank: State Bank of India
Account number: 30021430980
Branch name: Karyavattom, Technopark
Branch Code: SBIN0007617
Click here to fill details of bank transaction after depositing the money. Mention in the message about which Linux distribution you want.

Installation of Moodle on Ubuntu 14.04

Install Apache/MySQL/PHP

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install apache2 mysql-client mysql-server php5

sudo apt-get install graphviz aspell php5-pspell php5-curl php5-gd php5-intl php5-mysql php5-xmlrpc php5-ldap
sudo apt-get install git-core

Restart Apache
sudo service apache2 restart

Download Moodle
cd /opt
sudo git clone git://
cd moodle
sudo git branch -a
sudo git branch --track MOODLE_27_STABLE origin/MOODLE_27_STABLE
sudo git checkout MOODLE_27_STABLE

Copy local repository to /var/www/html/
sudo cp -R /opt/moodle /var/www/html/
sudo mkdir /var/www/moodledata
sudo chown -R www-data /var/www/moodledata
sudo chmod -R 777 /var/www/moodledata
sudo chmod -R 0755 /var/www/html/moodle

Setup MySQL Server
sudo gedit /etc/mysql/my.cnf
Add following lines under Basic settings section.

default-storage-engine = innodb

Save and close the file.

Restart MySQL
sudo service mysql restart

Create the Moodle MySQL User

mysql -u root -p






Complete Setup
sudo chmod -R 777 /var/www/html/moodle
Open your browser and go to
After you have ran the installer and you have moodle setup, you NEED to revert permissions so that it is no longer writable using the below command.

sudo chmod -R 0755 /var/www/html/moodle

Reference: Moodle Documentation

Add Google Input Tools extension on Chrome browser

Google Input Tool is helpful to type various languages without any hassle. Google Input Tool now has Chrome browser extension. User can type regional languages without leaving Chrome browser. You can add Google Input tools extension from this link,

The Google Input Tools extension provides virtual keyboards for over 90 languages, full IMEs or direct transliteration for over 30 different scripts, and handwriting input for over 40 languages.

Install Google Chrome
Download Google Chrome from the official website. Download .deb package for Ubuntu users.

Install Input Tools extension
Go to Google Chrome > Settings > More tools > Extensions > Get More extensions
Search, find and install Google Input Tools extension.

How to enable your regional language
Google Input Tools extension appear on browser page.

Click on the Google Input Tools extension button and select Extension Options.
Select your languages and close the window.

You can type your language in any browser based applications (e.g. Facebook).

Install LXQt on Ubuntu 14.04

LXQt is the Qt port and the upcoming version of LXDE, the Lightweight Desktop Environment. It is the product of the merge between the LXDE-Qt and the Razor-qt projects: A lightweight, modular, blazing-fast and user-friendly desktop environment.

Apply following commands in a terminal,

sudo apt-get install software-properties-common
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:lubuntu-dev/lubuntu-daily
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:gilir/q-project
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get install lxqt-metapackage lxqt-panel

Logout from desktop, change desktop session to LXQt Desktop.

Home page of LXQt:

Installing DSpace 4.x on Ubuntu 12.04/14.04 LTS

[This installation document is obsoleted. Please visit for latest Dspace installation steps.]

Installation of prerequisite applications

Open  Applications > Accessories > Terminal and execute following commands. Text in italics are the commands to be executed.

apt-get install leafpad
sudo apt-get install openjdk-7-jdk
sudo apt-get install postgresql
sudo apt-get install tomcat7
sudo apt-get install ant maven

Create the database user

sudo su postgres
createuser -U postgres -d -A -P dspace

Enter password for new role: [Enter a password e.g. dspace]
Shall the new role be allowed to create more new roles? (y/n) n
[Enter n and press enter button]

Type exit

Allow the database user (dspace) to connect to the database
[If the following command not open, check the Postgresql version number and apply in the command]

sudo leafpad /etc/postgresql/9.3/main/pg_hba.conf

Add this line to the configuration file at the end: 

local all dspace md5

save and close the file

Restart PostgreSQL :

sudo su
/etc/init.d/postgresql restart

Create Dspace user

sudo useradd -m dspace
sudo passwd dspace
[enter a password for the new user dspace]
sudo mkdir /dspace
sudo chown dspace /dspace

Create the PostgreSQL 'dspace' database

sudo -u dspace createdb -U dspace -E UNICODE dspace 

Configure Tomcat
[If the following command not open, check the tomcat version number and apply in the command]

sudo leafpad /etc/tomcat7/server.xml

Insert the following chunk of text just above the closing </Host>

<!-- Define a new context path for all DSpace web apps -->
<Context path="/xmlui" docBase="/dspace/webapps/xmlui" allowLinking="true"/>
<Context path="/sword" docBase="/dspace/webapps/sword" allowLinking="true"/>
<Context path="/oai" docBase="/dspace/webapps/oai" allowLinking="true"/>
<Context path="/jspui" docBase="/dspace/webapps/jspui" allowLinking="true"/>
<Context path="/lni" docBase="/dspace/webapps/lni" allowLinking="true"/>
<Context path="/solr" docBase="/dspace/webapps/solr" allowLinking="true"/>

save and close  the file.

Create Dspace directory

sudo mkdir /build
sudo chmod -R 777 /build
cd /build

Download Dsapce to /build directory
You can check latest version of Dspace from here.
Copy paste following line in the terminal,


Extracting Dspace package

tar -zxf dspace-4.2-src-release.tar.gz
cd /build/dspace-4.2-src-release
mvn -U package 

Enter into Dspace package folder to download packages.

cd dspace/target/dspace-4.2-build
sudo ant fresh_install

Fix Tomcat permissions, and restart the Tomcat server
sudo chown tomcat7:tomcat7 /dspace -R

Restart Tomcat

/etc/init.d/tomcat7 restart

Make an initial administrator account (an e-person) in DSpace:
/dspace/bin/dspace create-administrator

It will ask to enter email address for user login.
Enter an email address (e.g. dspace@localhost).
Enter First name and surename (e.g. dspace)
Enter a password.

Open Dspace in your browser
You can load either one Dspace interface in a browser.



Update Drupal using Drush

Drush is a command line shell and scripting interface for Druapl. Updating Drupal to latest version is easy with Drush.

sudo su 
apt-get install drush

Check new Drupal updates available. Enter inside the Drupal installation place/folder and apply following commands.
cd /usr/share/drupal7
drush up -n | grep available
drush up

You can find more Drush commands from following link,

Drupal installation

How to know PHP version number

Open Applications > Accessories > Terminal and apply following command,

php -i

Restore/Reset Firefox browser

Suppose something happened your Firefox browser and don't give performance like before. You can Restore the settings with Firefox. This process will backup and retain your bookmarks, passwords and browsing history.

Firefox > Help > Troubleshooting information